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Science and Technology

How to use modern technologies in daily life? How they help to study, work and rest? Where can you get them? What is the last scientific invention? Find all this information and even more downloading the essays of this category for free.

Essays about Science and Technology:


Critically evaluate the use of ICT in science

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Critically evaluate the use of ICT in science - 2.0 out of 5 based on 3 votes

Pupils are now required to have ICT lessons where they can build their knowledge of ICT and its uses; there is also a statutory requirement for pupils to use ICT in every subject at school. My placement has been at Deyes High School. The school has, this year, introduced a btec course in science. Through spending time in the science btec lessons I have noticed that a big proportion of the lessons are spent with the pupils using laptops to research and produce work. The use of pupils using laptops is also common across the years for all science lessons. The teachers also use ICT in their lessons for a wide number of uses, such as power point, and videos. ICT is used in many different ways to support learning and particularly in science it seems to have many benefits. For this reason I have chosen to critically evaluate the use ICT in teaching science.
According to the national curriculum, there are two ways in which using ICT can help enhance the learning of science, this is through simulation software and improving presentation. The first one, using simulation software, enables pupils to conduct investigations that they can control in various conditions and this allows them to predict outcomes .Through this simulation pupils able to be more creative in there thinking and test their theories. Simulation software is also particularly beneficial for teachers trying to illustrate an idea that is hard or impossible to demonstrate in the classroom setting. Several studies have explored effects of the use of simulations and modelling. Hogarth (2006) conducted a review which identified studies relating to teaching science to 11-16 year-olds using ICT in science for simulations. In this small sample, ICT simulations improved students' understanding of science ideas and scientific approach. However when comparing this study to Bloom’s (1956) work, it is found that the use of ICT only had positive effects on the lower levels of learning and there was no significant impact on higher level learning, for example designing an experiment. This is a disadvantage to the software as it should be used to help improve learning. It could mean the use of ICT could be more beneficial to different levels of learner, so it would be up to the teacher to decide whether the use of technology is necessary and beneficial to the lesson.

Top-10 Most Unbelievable Scientific Discoveries for the Last 10 Years

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There had been many unbelievable scientific discoveries for the last ten years. These most unbelievable discoveries are largely in the area of astronomy as a result of data gathered in biology and Hubble Telescope.
Both young specialists and experienced scientists try to find something new, more unbelievable and impressive in these fields.
There is a list of top-10 most unbelievable discoveries in biology for the last 10 years.
1. The oldest hominid fossil
In 2002 the Toumai skull was discovered by researchers who were working in Central Africa and this had been said to be the oldest hominid fossil so far discovered. This unbelievable discovery explains a possible common ancestor between humans and apes and shed brightness on the likelihood that human evolution had been happening all over Africa instead of localized area as imagined in the beginning.
2. The expansion of adult stem cell lines
Another most unbelievable discovery was the expansion of adult stem cell lines. Stem cells are cells that have the capability of been programmed for the purpose of serving as any other cell type. This, however, generates indefinite latent for stem cells useful for repairing damaged tissues in those patients who are suffering from variety of illnesses.
Researchers set out to discover ways of reprogramming adult stem cells to serve the same purpose as all-powerful embryonic cells, with the controversy surrounding the destruction of embryonic cells. Irrefutable finding has shown that adult skin cells can be reprogrammed to behave as embryonic stem cells in late 2007.

Scientific Management

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Scientific Management - 5.0 out of 5 based on 1 vote

It is not difficult to find examples of Scientific Management in today’s society; the car and computer manufacturing plants, the work environments we go to everyday, the hospitals we are treated in and even some of the restaurants we might eat in, - almost all of them function more efficiently due to the application of Scientific Management. In fact, these methods of working seem so commonplace and so logical to a citizen of the modern world that it is almost impossible to accept that they were revolutionary only 100 years ago.
Technically Scientific Management is the Management thought concerned primarily with the physical efficiency of an individual worker (Bratton: 2000). According to Taylor (1998), ""Scientific Management is an art of knowing exactly what you want your men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way"". In Taylors view, if work is analyzed scientifically it will be possible to find one best way to do it. Taylor held the belief that traditional decisions and guidelines should be replaced by accurate procedures that are developed after careful research and study of an individual’s work. The need for scientific management is propelled by the fact that the demand of the competent man surpasses the supply. Countries and organizations are always on the look out for a man who has already been trained. There is a seeming lack of opportunity and contribution towards systematically training and making a man competent.
However, George Ritzer(2000) defined Scientific Management as a procedure that produced non human technology that exerted great control over workers. In his statement Ritzer refers to the effect of scientific management. Before the study by Taylor and most businesses followed the old Rule of Thumb management procedure in which the worker had initiative and control and therefore, it was only his hard work that resulted in the business success or failure.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition

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The Lewis and Clark Expedition was one of the most important missions in the history of the United States. The exploration of the uncharted west greatly aided the United States in the discovery of, “some 300 species unknown to science, nearly 50 Indian tribes, and the Rockies” (Lewis and Clark Expedition). The expedition, otherwise known as “the Corps of Discovery” gave the United States a greater understanding of the newly gained western territory. Through the mapping of the Louisiana Territory, the discovery of new species and land, and the greater understanding of the new Indian tribes that was gained, the Lewis and Clark Expedition became an invaluable asset to the future growth of the United States. They managed to accomplish this with only one member of the Corps, Sergeant Charles Floyd, dying along the journey from appendicitis. This expedition was an immensely great accomplishment for the United States. The Corps of Discovery started their journey from Pittsburgh on August 31, 1803. They left with thirty three men, of which included a pilot, seven soldiers, three young men on trial, and Lewis and Clark themselves. As they went along their mission Clark spent the majority of his time mapping the way and charting the course. As the team made its way along the Ohio River and then up the Missouri River Clark was busy charting the course. The maps that Clark made would allow the people back in the east to get a better idea of what the Louisiana Territory was like. Clark’s maps would become a great aid to scholars and others wishing to gain more knowledge on the newly purchased territory. When Thomas Jefferson first sent the Lewis and Clark team to explore the Louisiana Territory and to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean he thought that “woolly mammoths, erupting volcanoes, and a mountain of pure salt awaited them” (Lewis and Clark Expedition). Of course none of these things were found, but what they did discover was not as fabricated but was no less mind-boggling.

First Electronic Computer

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The Atanasoff –Berry Computer was the first Electronic digital computer. It was built by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University during 1937-42. It incorporated several major innovations in computing including the use of binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, parallel processing and separation of memory and computing functions. John Vincent Atanasoff was born on 4 October 1903 a few miles west of Hamilton, New York. His father was a Bulgarian immigrant named Ivan Atanasov. His last name was changed to Atanasoff by immigration officials at Ellis Island when he arrived with an uncle in 1889, and later on, his first name was changed to John. His mother was Iva Lucena Purdy, a mathematics schoolteacher. The couple had nine children (one of whom died): John, Ethelyn, Margaret, Theodore, Avis, Raymond, Melva, Irving. After John Vincent's birth, his father accepted an electrical engineering position is Osteen, Florida, and subsequently, in Brewster, Florida. It was here that JV completed grade school and started understanding the concepts of electricity. The Atanasoff home in Brewster was the first house they lived in with electricity, and JV, as a 9-year-old boy found and corrected faulty electric wiring in a back-porch light.
Clifford E. Berry was born in Gladbrook, Iowa on 19 April 1918 to Fred Gordon Berry and Grace Strohm. He was the oldest of four children born to the couple: Clifford, Keith, Frederick, and Barbara. When Clifford was a small child, his father Fred had an electrical appliance and repair store in Gladbrook, where he had several electrical projects. By far the greatest of his projects was a radio--the first radio in Gladbrook. This prompted a stream of town visitors to get a glimpse at the machine. Fred taught his son about the construction of the radio and it was here that Clifford started tinkering with electricity and radio. When he was eleven, he built his first ham radio, under his father's supervision.

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