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Last few decades people all over the world are talking about ecology, problems with environmental pollution and nature at all. These topics are on top and we are ready to help you to understand which statements are true and worth thinking over. Download free essays right now and use them for your own research.

Free Essays about Nature:


Climate Change Project

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Climate Change Project - 5.0 out of 5 based on 1 vote

Scientists know with virtual certainty that:

* Human activities are changing the composition of Earth's atmosphere. Increasing levels of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times are well-documented and understood.
* The atmospheric buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is largely the result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels.
* An “unequivocal” warming trend of about 1.0 to 1.7°F occurred from 1906-2005. Warming occurred in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and over the oceans (IPCC, 2007).
* The major greenhouse gases emitted by human activities remain in the atmosphere for periods ranging from decades to centuries. It is therefore virtually certain that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases will continue to rise over the next few decades.
* Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations tend to warm the planet.

What's Very Likely?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated ""Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations"" (IPCC, 2007). In short, a growing number of scientific analyses indicate, but cannot prove, that rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are contributing to climate change (as theory predicts). In the coming decades, scientists anticipate that as atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to rise, average global temperatures and sea levels will continue to rise as a result and precipitation patterns will change.

The Nature-Nurture Issue

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Nature involves our genetic development and Nurture our experiences, without one there would not be the other. Like a car cannot drive it’s self and needs a driver, they work together to get where they're going. Without the car the driver would be less effective, and the car would not work at all.
“Well that’s Dumb”
It is flawed to ask how much of a particular behavior is due to genetics and how much is due to experience because it is based on the premise that genetic factors and experiential factors combine in an additive fashion-that a behavioral capacity, such as intelligence, is created through the combination of so many parts of genetics and so many parts of experience, rather than through the interaction of genetics and experience (Pinel, 2009).

In the text we read: The Case of the Thinking Student, which helped explain how ""dumb"" it would be to say one or the other is better or not. Both contribute to forming a person's personality. I personally feel that no gene controls how I am going to act, I can't blame my parents for who I am, I have learned through experiences to be who I am, however genetics, have played a part in forming how I process things and there for have worked with my experiences to form the person I am. So neither one is better or worse, they both are important. Just as when a musician makes music it is part the instrument and part the person, they work together to make something.

What impact does nectar-robbing have on the seed-set of flowering plants?

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Plants that offer food may attract non-pollinators! Problems can arise from this such as nectar robbing. Nectar robbing occurs when an insect, animal or bird visits a flowering plant, robbing the nectar without touching any of the reproductive parts or pollinating it (Stout, Allen and Goulson 2000).
The relationship that exists between plants and genuine pollinators can be considered one of mutualism. This is because plants depend on pollinators to transport male gametes and pollinators depend on plants for the resources they provide, like nectar. In this equation, each party both benefits from each other (mutualism) (Zhang, Wang and Guo 2007). In the plant-pollinator mutualism relationship, nectar robbers are often classified as cheaters as the name robber implies. This is because they rob the plant of the nectar it provides without pollinating it, that is, taking the reward without providing a service (Richardson 2004). Nectar robbers are insects, birds and some animals; they usually remove nectar from flowering plants by piercing or tearing a hole in the corolla (Cushman and Beattie 1991). See fig 1.
Nectar robbing can have both positive and negative impacts on the seed-set of flowering plants, and even neutral impacts. It all depends on the plant-pollinator relationship (Zhang, Wang and Guo 2007). Some negative impacts of nectar robbing is the removal of resources such as nectar and pollen, which may result in a decrease of visitation by pollinators, a decrease in seed set, damaging of floral tissues, the shortening of some flowers lifespan and in some cases can lead to the reduction in attractiveness to potential pollinators (Castro, Silveira and Navarro 2008). In some cases however, nectar robbers can have a positive impact on the reproductive success of flowering plants as their bodies sometimes come in contact with the sexual organs of the plant at some point in robbing (Guitian, Sanchez and Guitian 1994). It is believed that nectar robbers may also bring about a decrease in the number of flowers that are visited by genuine pollinators, which leads to an increase in foraging distances, in turn leading to an increase in genetic variability through out-crossing (Cushman and Beattie 1991).

Water Resource Plan

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The water source issue I chose was water pollution. I think this is an issue that has been a major problem for a long time. Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives in it (LENNTECH). Many pollutants that have made their way into the earth’s water include oil, garbage, sewage, debris, fertilizers, and chemicals. The different sources of water pollution are; industry, agriculture, and homes. Human waste has become the biggest contributor to the water pollution epidemic.
Over the years, humans have consistently thrown waste into oceans, lakes, and rivers. They often do not see it as a big deal or view as something that happens all the time and is natural. It is this type of thinking that makes this problem an ongoing one. Water pollution is something that has to be taken more seriously and needs to be properly addressed. In order to properly address this situation, one must be fully aware of the danger it presents to both humans and animals.
Virtually all types of water pollution are harmful to the health of humans and animals. Water pollution may not damage our health immediately but can be harmful after long term exposure. Different forms of pollutants affect the health of animals in different ways:
* Heavy metals from industrial processes can accumulate in nearby lakes and rivers. These are toxic to marine life such as fish and shellfish, and subsequently to the humans who eat them. Heavy metals can slow development; result in birth defects and some are carcinogenic.
* Industrial waste often contains many toxic compounds that damage the health of aquatic animals and those who eat them. Some of the toxins in industrial waste may only have a mild effect whereas other can be fatal. They can cause immune suppression, reproductive failure or acute poisoning.

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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Energy may be best defined as anything that produces work and may be seen in many forms. This week’s reading focused on photosynthesis which plants convert energy from a light source (sun) into organic molecules used as food and cellular respiration in which cells gather energy from metabolizing plant molecules. As the definitions would indicate, cellular respiration and photosynthesis are a form of energy, but within these forms one will find other energy processes taking place. In order to better understand these processes I will list them under their prospective source and give a brief definition of their purpose.
Within photosynthesis are the energy forms:
Light-dependent reaction is the first stage of photosynthesis requiring light. Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll which then undergoes a chemical reaction producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (Pruitt & Underwood, 2006, pg. 301-303).
The Calvin-Benson Cycle, also known as light-independent reaction, is the second phase of photosynthesis and does not require light. During this phase carbon dioxide, obtained from the air, is used to produce glucose (Pruitt & Underwood, 2006, pg. 304-305)
Within cellular respiration are the energy forms:
Glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration, is the metabolic process that converts glucose (done through several steps) into pyruvic acid (Pruitt & Underwood, 2006, pg. 290-291).
The Krebs Cycle is the second stage and “central pathway in cellular metabolism.” The cycle is a cellular level conversion process that produces high-energy phosphate compounds which serves as a source of energy. It is also the link between aerobic and anaerobic phase that increases ATP synthesis (Pruitt & Underwood, 2006, pg. 292-293).

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