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Essays about Business and Economics:

 

The History of Operations Management Part 1

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The field of Operations emerged in the 1800’s but with each decade has grown and developed into the technologically advanced field it is today, committed to producing innovative quality products and services. According to Heizer & Render (2008) Operations Management is “the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs.”
This paper examines the evolution of Operations management and its various contributors, from the early concepts where the focus was on cost and includes, the scientific and mass production era to focusing on quality and the lean production era. The final section of this paper focuses on customization in the mass customization era.

EARLY CONCEPTS 1776-1800

Agriculture was the predominant industry in most countries worldwide for many centuries. At the end of the 18th century, advances began to be made in various agricultural techniques that resulted in increases in food and raw material. There were also changes in industrial organization and advances in technology which resulted in increased production, efficiency and profits. These and other conditions resulted in the industrial revolution. As a result some individuals began to look at more efficient way to increase production and profits. These include the following:

LABOR SPECIALIZATION:

Labor specialization refers to the dividing up of tasks so that they are completed by a larger number of persons who perform specialized skills as opposed to one person completing the entire job.

The History of Operations Management Part 2

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KANBAN

Kanban is a system of continuous supply of component parts and supplies, such that workers have what they need, where they need it and when they need it. It is a means of achieving Just-In-Time product and works on the basis that each process on a production line pulls just the right number and type of components that the process requires at just the right time (“What is Kaban?” n.d.).

MASS CUSTOMIZATION ERA (1995 -2010)

Mass customization involves customizing and personalizing of products and services. With the evolution of this era in operations management customers are able through the help of the world-wide web, to interact with a company in almost any part of the world and specify their unique requirements, which are then manufactured by automated systems. Benefits of mass customization include lower costs and higher profits. In addition, because the products are made to customer specifications they are able to compete with other similar products at the same or similar cost.

GLOBALIZATION – is the interaction and integration among peoples, companies and governments of different nations (“Globalization”, n.d). The basis for it is informational technology which allows easy access and makes the world a global village. Globalization affords the prudent manager the opportunity to tap into the vast resources that are available in other countries. Companies are also able with the use of the internet to broaden their customer base. This affords customers the opportunity to customize their orders and be reasonably assured that the products and even services will be made readily available to them.

Early History of First Oil Activities

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Contemporary international political situation is influenced by some special necessities which are sources that states need them. This reality comes from ancient times as states have vital arguments to be powerful than others in everywhere. State mechanism needs any special material to live for a long time or be strong always like blood function for human body. There is a main argument as a vital interest; oil which effects political situations of states with its useful benefits for all areas of the state mechanism. It had been transformed to a new style like blood as an alternative to other energy and trade materials since 19. century.

As historically oil was discovered in different special regions of the world and understood for some special features such as advantage to prevent some diseases, to attack material which burns under sea in wars by Byzantine Empire, to illuminate and to use for machineries. So it had been transformed from energy event to main subject of trade activities. In 19. century oil was formed to be functional style as kerosene with chemical tests by George Bissell and Benjamin Silliman. They developed industrial function of this material and some search methods were created such as different drilling system. George Bissell who was called as father of oil industry, used oil as kerosene and he developed a system to find oil with drilling system instead of mining. Oil drilling and marketing had a new face after chemical contributions and industrial processes. It will be main theme for producting and economic interaction. Oil was realized internationally as an alternative for candeel and coal with searching activations in Pennsylvania-Titusville by E. L. Drake. Drake entered to this market with other men, but his self initiatives kept him specially.

South African Economy: Foreign Capital Inflow, Exchange Rates and Economic Vulnerability

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Introduction

From the days of Apartheid, to the times of today, South Africa has relied on foreign capital inflow for the purpose of sustaining high levels of growth through investment in the various sectors of the country. This great reliance on foreign investment has made South Africa vulnerable to fluctuations in the exchange rate and other global conditions.
This essay will discuss the extent to which South Africa is reliant on foreign capital, reasons why this is so and the nature of these inflows. Exchange rate issues will also be discussed, with detail of how South Africa combated these issues in the various years that they arouse. Finally, methods on how South Africa can reduce its vulnerability to such fluctuations will be made apparent.

South Africa’s reliance on foreign capital inflow

After the end of The Apartheid era and the abolishment of all laws that were associated with the era, the various international sanctions and bands that were put on South Africa were lifted. This allowed numerous countries to begin investing in South Africa. These foreign capital inflows were greatly needed by the South African economy as the new government had the following economic goals: “Attract foreign capital, reduce the large role of government as government owns half the countries fixed capital assets and facilitate gradual restructuring of industry along globally competitive lines” (Germishuis, 1999: 2). The two latter goals could only be achieved through proper financing for the government. During the 1994 era, domestically raised capital could not be used for the financing of local investment initiatives that promote economic growth. As Mohr (2003: 2) states, “Between January 1990 and June 1994, there was a steady net outflow of capital not related to reserves of almost R27 billion, partly as a result of repayments of foreign debt emanating from the 1985 debt standstill arrangement”.

Measurement and Evaluation of Fixed Assets of Companies in Yemen

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1. Introduction and problem of the study
Yemeni economy suffers - like other economies of the developing countries - the problem of inflation, and this affects the accuracy of the accounting valuation of fixed assets as a result of the decline in the price of the local currency.

Some of the limitations faced by the accounting profession in Yemen is the lack of empirical evidence in front of academics and the accounting professionals on the accounting policies applied in the Yemeni companies in the measurement and evaluation of fixed assets, and create a link between accounting thought and reality for practice accounting profession in order to develop and adapt to international circumstances surrounding it.

2. Importance of Study
The Importance of this research refers to the following:
1. Economic development witnessed by Yemen and the spread of shareholding companies in Yemen. This development is not accompanied by the development in the profession of accounting and auditing at the same level.

2. Raising the phenomenon of inflation as a matter of impact on the financial reports which are the important sources of information needed by many internal and external parties.

3. Providing information in accordance with the international accounting criteria in order to be an effective tool to rationalize decisions at both domestic and international levels under expansion in fields of investments and spread of multinational company.

4. Possibility of making use of the search results to identify problems of application in shareholding companies in Yemen.

5. Possibility of making use of the international accounting criteria, while providing the conditions and appropriate possibilities to develop it locally, and extract what commensurate with the local environment.

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